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1935 - The Winds of War
Board: History is Alive
Aug 31, 2019 8:41pm
On August 31, 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Neutrality Act, which he calls an “expression of the desire…to avoid any action which might involve [the U.S.] in war.” The signing came at a time when newly installed fascist governments in Europe were beginning to beat the drums of war.

In a public statement, Roosevelt said that the new law would, among other things, impose an embargo on the sale of arms to “belligerent” nations. It was understood that “belligerent” imply Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy. It also provided the strongest language yet warning other countries that the U.S. would increase its patrols to protect American waters from lurking foreign submarines. This was seen as a response to Hitler’s March 1935 announcement that Germany would no longer honor the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which prohibited Germany from rebuilding its military.

Submitted for your consideration,
Old Blue
Easy Money
Board: History is Alive
Sep 2, 2019 7:48am
On September 2, 1969, America’s first automatic teller machine (ATM) makes its public debut, dispensing cash to customers at Chemical Bank in Rockville Center, New York. ATMs went on to revolutionize the banking industry, eliminating the need to visit a bank to conduct basic financial transactions.

Old Blue
a parttime trivia master
GERONIMO!
Board: History is Alive
Sep 4, 2019 10:51am
Thread
On September 4, 1886, Apache leader Geronimo surrenders to U.S. government troops. For 30 years, the mighty Native American warrior had battled to protect his tribe’s homeland; however, by 1886 the Apaches were exhausted and hopelessly outnumbered. General Nelson Miles accepted Geronimo’s surrender, making him the last Native American warrior to formally give in to U.S. forces and signaling the end of the Indian Wars in the Southwest.

Geronimo was born in 1829 and grew up in what is present-day Arizona and Mexico. His tribe, the Chiricahua Apaches, clashed with non-Native settlers trying to take their land. In 1858, Geronimo’s family was murdered by Mexicans. Seeking revenge, he later led raids against Mexican and American settlers. In 1874, the U.S. government moved Geronimo and his people from their land to a reservation in east-central Arizona. Conditions on the reservation were restrictive and harsh and Geronimo with some of his followers escaped. Over the next decade, they battled U.S. and Mexican troops, launched raids on settlers, but were forced back to the reservation several times only to escape again.

After finally surrendering, Geronimo and a band of Apaches were sent to Florida and then Alabama, eventually ending up at the Comanche and Kiowa reservation near Fort Sill, Oklahoma Territory. There, Geronimo became a successful farmer and converted to Christianity. He participated in President Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade in 1905. The Apache leader dictated his autobiography, published in 1906 as Geronimo’s Story of His Life. He died at Fort Sill on February 17, 1909 at the age of 79.

In 1882, my great grandfather, William R Steele, and a friend decided there was good money to be made working as teamster hauling freight to Tombstone... right in the middle of Apache country. It turned out that his friend was not a dependable partner and before long the enterprise was failing. The last straw came when William's wife, in California, read in the newspapers that Geronimo and Cochise were raiding all around Tombstone. She wrote him, urging him to come home & he obeyed. After all, happy wife happy life!

Submitted for your consideration,

Old Blue
well maybe not that happy, several years later, they divorced
Re: GERONIMO!
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979157 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 5, 2019 9:34am
Thread
Other Geronimo facts...

His actual name was Goyahkla (“The One Who Yawns”), but as a young man he earned the moniker “Geronimo” after distinguishing himself in Apache raids against the Mexicans. One theory regarding the nickname, Geronimo, is that fearful Mexicans fleeing his raiding parties invoked the name of St Jerome to protect them.

Geronimo was never a tribal chief.

His followers believed he had a variety of supernatural powers including the ability to heal the sick, slow time, avoid bullets, bring on rainstorms and even witness events over great distances.
Re: GERONIMO!
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979180 by DarkZen and Evil Cow Pie
Sep 5, 2019 8:57pm
Thread
His followers believed he had a variety of supernatural powers including the ability to heal the sick, slow time, avoid bullets, bring on rainstorms and even witness events over great distances.

So this and this?

I guess that we can call him the original Gero-Neo.
We Called Him Tricky Dick
Board: History is Alive
Sep 8, 2019 3:30pm
Thread
In a controversial executive action, President Gerald Ford pardons his disgraced predecessor Richard M. Nixon for any crimes he may have committed or participated in while in office. Ford later defended this action before the House Judiciary Committee, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal.

Old Blue
we called him that 4 years before he quit office!
Re: We Called Him Tricky Dick
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979270 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 8, 2019 3:42pm
Thread
President Gerald Ford pardons Nixon for any crimes he may have committed...

Hey what about ME!! I may have committed some crimes.

Red John
On this day in 1977...
Board: History is Alive
Sep 11, 2019 6:49am
at Baumetes Prison in Marseille, France, Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant convicted of murder, becomes the last person executed by guillotine.

Red John
100 years Ago - No Cops in Boston!
Board: History is Alive
Sep 12, 2019 7:17am
Thread
100 years ago today was the 4th and last day of a strike by the Boston Police officers. The largely Irish-American police force had seen its wages lag badly during the war. Efforts were made to organize in order to gain not only higher pay, but shorter hours and better working conditions. Police Commissioner Edwin U. Curtis refused to sanction a police union and suspended the leaders from the force in August 1919.

On September 9, more than 1,100 officers went out on strike, which removed three-fourths of the force from the city’s streets. In some areas, rabble-rousers looted and rioted. On the following day, Mayor Andrew J. Peters summoned local militia units, which managed to restore order. In anticipation of the strike, all of Boston's newspapers called it "Bolshevistic,"[#] and pleaded with the police to reconsider while predicting dire consequences. This hurt the officers deeply as most of them had fought in World War One, which had ended only 10 months earlier.

Police officers had an extensive list of grievances. Officially they worked ten-hour shifts, but typically recorded weekly totals between 75 and 90 hours, with no overtime pay. They were not paid for time spent on court appearances. They complained about having to share beds and the lack of sanitation, baths, and toilets at many of the 19 station houses where they were required to live. Their pay was $0.25 /hour, considerably less that the average Bostonian civil servant's. According to the US Census, average wages in America at the time were $1.25 per hour.

They also objected to being required to perform such tasks as "delivering unpaid tax bills, surveying rooming houses, taking the census, or watching the polls at elections" and checking the backgrounds of prospective jurors as well as serving as "errand boys" for their officers.

In the 4 days of the strike, 9 people were killed, 8 by the State Guard, who had virtually no experience in crowd control.

Ultimately all of the striking officers were fired, nearly 1200 in all. The replacement officers hired in the wake of the strike received higher salaries and more vacation days than the strikers had. They enjoyed a starting salary of $1,400 ($0.40/hr) along with a pension plan, and the department covered the cost of their uniforms and equipment ($250). So the replacement officers were the beneficiaries of the strike.

[#] Many of the non-Irish officers were Italian, Scandinavian and Canadian. This Bolshevik conspiracy fear focused on non-Americans, and particularly along religious lines.

Sources: Boston Globe and Wiki.

Submitted for your consideration,

Old Blue
Re: 100 years Ago - No Cops in Boston!
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979397 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 12, 2019 8:09am
Thread
most of them had fought in World War One, which had ended only 10 months earlier.

World War I was also known as the Great War, or described as "the war to end all wars".
Re: 100 years Ago - No Cops in Boston!
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979398 by Oberon_Kenobi
Sep 12, 2019 8:54am
Thread
World War I was also known as the Great War, or described as "the war to end all wars".

WorldWarIwasalsoknownastheGreatWar,ordescribedas"thewartoendallwars".
Re: 100 years Ago - No Cops in Boston!
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979398 by Oberon_Kenobi
Sep 12, 2019 5:09pm
Thread
described as "the war to end all wars".

I prefer to describe it as part "One" of the World War with a 20 year intermission to follow.
Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Sep 14, 2019 3:10pm
Thread
On this day in 1814, Francis Scott Key pens a poem which is later set to music and in 1931 becomes America’s national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner. The poem was written after Key witnessed the Maryland fort being bombarded for over 27 hours by dozens of British ships during the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the sight of a lone U.S. flag still flying over Fort McHenry at daybreak, as reflected in the now-famous words: “... And the rocket’s red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.”

Am I the only person who get chills when I hear it?

Old Blue
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979427 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 14, 2019 3:32pm
Thread
I personally love that our national anthem has stuff blowing up in it. :)
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979427 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 14, 2019 6:06pm
Thread
My favorite has always been when Whitney Houston sang it at the Super Bowl. She is one of the few people who had a powerful enough voice and the range to really nail it that well. I'm sure there are other great versions but that one is my favorite.
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979429 by MissMoon
Sep 14, 2019 6:16pm
Thread
Ace Frehley does a fantastic electric guitar rendition, too. <3
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979429 by MissMoon
Sep 15, 2019 4:36am
Thread
I recently found this version. Love it.
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979427 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Sep 15, 2019 7:07am
Thread
Beautiful song. If there is a better version than Marc Anthony’s, I haven’t heard it:

https://youtu.be/c8BCp9WgUCE
Re: Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979439 by DarkZen and Evil Cow Pie
Sep 15, 2019 9:04am
Thread
Ok, everyone is putting their favorite up, so....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_lCmBvYMRs

Powerful voice that could handle a difficult melody and joy in the presentation.
200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Sep 24, 2019 5:33am
Thread
I had the honor of participating in today's Pipe Ceremony in remembrance of this event.

1819 Treaty of Saginaw

The Treaty of Saginaw was signed between General Lewis Cass, the US
Territorial Governor of Michigan & Chief John Okemos of the Saginaw Chippewa, Chief Wasso of the Shiawassee band Ojibwe, and other Native Americans representing some bands of the Ojibwe, Potawatomi and Odawa Nations.
This treaty ceded over six million acres, encompassing the lower portion of the Michigan peninsula, and reserved land withing the ceded territory for use.
By 1850 the US government disregarded their obligations signed in the Treaty of Saginaw. These tracts of land were seized and the Natives living there were moved to reservations.
Background

Prior notable events
The Greenville Treaty of 1795 began the relationship between many Native American nations, including the Ojibwe. All parties agreed upon peace and friendly relations. This treaty is named in Article 5 of the Treaty of Saginaw due to the Greenville Treaty granting rights to "hunting, planting, and dwelling" within ceded land.
During the war of 1812 many of the Tribes on the northeast were allies of the British, this stressed relations between the US and all Native Americans. Afterwards a second treaty was signed at Greenville which did not include any members of the Three Fires confederacy. However it is important to note this treaty was to reinstate peace between all Native Americans and the United States. There is no mention of ceded land or rights retained in the Greenvelle treaty of 1812.
People
Chief John Okemos

Chief Wasso, (The Bright Light, or light falling on a distant object). He also signed at the Treaty of 1837
General Lewis Cass
John, Peter & James Riley

Resources:
Indian Cession Of 1819 Made By The Treaty Of Saginaw
Legendary Locals of Saginaw
Saginaw Michigan 100 year Treaty

The Greenville Treaty 1795
Saginaw Bay Journal
A related blog

MSU Saginaw Cession

Events

Prior to negotiations, Gen. Lewis Cass sends others, including Jacob Smith (trader), Joseph Campau (trader), and Louis Campau (trader) to prepare "their minds... for this coming request."

September 11, 1819 Gen. Cass writes to the Secretary of War regarding his task to obtain land through the upcoming negotiations. He discusses needing to settle previously due annuities to the Chippewa in order to continue on with new negotiations.

A gathering of 2000 Native Americans, predominantly Ojibwe and other Three Fires' tribes, met with General Cass and many other diplomats, interpreters, and traders to begin treaty talks. Negotiations and terms of the treaty were said to have taken many days, although Cass was not present for all negotiations. It was said to have taken place in Gen. Cass' office, as a large dining table.

First Council, The principle chief and the others were notified of "the Great White Father's request" to purchase their lands. They took three or four days to recess to discuss.

Second Council, There were many harsh words and some who threatened Gen. Cass. The principle chiefs, however, agreed to the sale. Terms were discussed and they recessed for five or six days.

The Last Council, Land reserves were made and terms signed. Goods and payments were issued.

September 24, 1819 the Treaty of Saginaw is signed.

Payments were made to Louis Campau (Goods), Jacob Smith (Services & building use), Henry Connor (interpreter), J. & A. Wendell (Goods), Joseph F. Marsac (interpreter), John (interpreter) & Peter Riley (unknown)

March 25, 1820 the Treaty of Saginaw is proclaimed.

1860, a trial is held to determine the boundaries of Tawcumegoqua, a place named to be excluded within the ceded territory. In this trial many details are written from the testimonies of those who attended.

1919 The Daugthers of the American Revolution placed the treaty stone to commemorate the signing of the 1819 Treaty of Saginaw

Image is courtesy of "2019" a blog written by Jim Ferency in 2011
Details of the 1819 Treaty.
Land ceded
More than 6,000,000 acres were ceded in this treaty.

This excluded:
15 tracts of land (106,000 acres total) & one island to be reserved for various reasons
1920 acres for personal use by three named decedents
640 acres for personal use by "the children of Bokowtonden"
Menitegow (a 640 acre tract) including one island for use by Kawkawiskou, a Chippewa chief
7040 named acres to be used "in such manner as the President of the United States may direct."
This was 11 named places: Nowokeshik, Metawanene, Mokitchenoqua, Nondashemau, Petabonaqua, Messawwakut, Checbalk, Kitchegeequa, Sagosequa, Annoketoqua, and Tawcumegoqua, located at and near the grand traverse of the Flint river
New Boundaries
"Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line, which runs due north from the mouth of the great Auglaize river, six miles south of the place where the base line, so called, intersects the same; thence, west, sixty miles; thence, in a direct line, to the head of Thunder Bay River; thence, down the same, following the courses thereof, to the mouth; thence, northeast, to the boundary line between the United States and the British Province of Upper Canada; thence, with the same, to the line established by the treaty of Detroit, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seven; thence, with the said line, to the place of beginning."

Within the six million acres ceded now lay the modern day cities of Lansing, Midland, Alpena, Bay City, Saginaw, and Flint.

A map of ceded land and new boundaries:
From the 1919 book by Fred Dustin: "The Saginaw Treaty of 1819".Image is courtesy of "The Saginaw Treaty of 1819" written by Fred Dustin in 1919

Payments and Reimbursements
$1,000 was to be paid "annually, for ever," to "the Chippewa nation of Indians" in silver.
Compensation was to be paid for any improvements made on the land which had to be abandoned in light of the new boundaries.
The United States was to provide and support a blacksmith at Saginaw, to provide farming utensils and cattle, and to employ people to aid in agriculture, "as the President may deem expedient."

Party Rights to Land
In accordance with the Greenville Treaty of 1795, some rights were retained by the tribes which signed the treaty. Namely, the right to hunt and the right to "enjoy the privilege of making sugar... committing no unnecessary waste upon the trees."
The United States reserved "the right make roads through any part of the land reserved by this treaty"

Treaty errors
It is important to note, spelling was not kept in great detail by the writers of this treaty in regards to the names of those signing. This causes confusion in later trials. Ex. "Reaume" is listed as signing the treaty, however the man's name is Neome. Okemos is written Okemans.
It should also be noted, in testimonies of this Treaty, some signers made mention they had no knowledge of how land was sold and attended out of curiosity or that they had no part of treaty process but mention being made to use a pen.

TREATY WITH THE CHIPPEWA, 1819.

Sept. 24, 1819. | 7 Stat., 203. | Proclamation, Mar. 25, 1820.

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Saginaw, in the Territory of Michigan, between the United States of America, by their Commissioner, Lewis Cass, and the Chippewa nation of Indians.

ARTICLE 1.
The Chippewa nation of Indians, in consideration of the stipulations herein made on the part of the United States, do hereby, forever, cede to the United States the land comprehended within the following lines and boundaries: Beginning at a point in the present Indian boundary line, which runs due north from the mouth of the great Auglaize river, six miles south of the place where the base line, so called, intersects the same; thence, west, sixty miles; thence, in a direct line, to the head of Thunder Bay River; thence, down the same, following the courses thereof, to the mouth; thence, northeast, to the boundary line between the United States and the British Province of Upper Canada; thence, with the same, to the line established by the treaty of Detroit, in the year one thousand eight hundred and seven; thence, with the said line, to the place of beginning.

ARTICLE 2.
From the cession aforesaid the following tracts of land shall be reserved, for the use of the Chippewa nation of Indians:
One tract, of eight thousand acres, on the east side of the river Au Sable, near where the Indians now live.
One tract, of two thousand acres, on the river Mesagwisk.
One tract, of six thousand acres, on the north side of the river Kawkawling, at the Indian village.
One tract, of five thousand seven hundred and sixty acres, upon the Flint river, to include Reaum’s village, and a place called Kishkawbawee.
One tract, of eight thousand acres, on the head of the river Huron, which empties into the Saginaw river, at the village of Otusson.
One island in the Saginaw Bay.
One tract, of two thousand acres, where Nabobask formerly lived.
One tract, of one thousand acres, near the island in the Saginaw river.
One tract, of six hundred and forty acres, at the bend of the river Huron, which empties into the Saginaw river.
One tract, of two thousand acres, at the mouth of Point Augrais river.
One tract, of one thousand acres, on the river Huron, at Menoequet's village.
One tract, of ten thousand acres, on the Shawassee river, at a place called the Big Rock.
One tract, of three thousand acres, on the Shawassee river, at Ketchewaundaugenink.
One tract, of six thousand acres, at the Little Forks on the Tetabawasink river.
One tract, of six thousand acres, at the Black Bird's town, on the Tetabawasink river.
One tract, of forty thousand acres, on the west side of the Saginaw river, to be hereafter located.

ARTICLE 3.
There shall be reserved, for the use of each of the persons hereinafter mentioned and their heirs, which persons are all Indians by descent, the following tracts of land:
For the use of John Riley, the son of Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa woman, six hundred and forty acres of land, beginning at the head of the first marsh above the mouth of the Saginaw river, on the east side thereof.
For the use of Peter Riley, the son of Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa woman, six hundred and forty acres of land, beginning above and adjoining the apple trees on the west side of the Saginaw river, and running up the same for quantity.
For the use of James Riley, the son of Menawcumegoqua, a Chippewa woman, six hundred and forty acres, beginning on the east side of the Saginaw river, nearly opposite to Campeau's trading house, and running up the river for quantity.
For the use of Kawkawiskou, or the Crow, a Chippewa chief, six hundred and forty acres of land, on the east side of the Saginaw river, at a place called Menitegow, and to include, in the said six hundred and forty acres, the island opposite to the said place.
For the use of Nowokeshik, Metawanene, Mokitchenoqua, Nondashemau, Petabonaqua, Messawwakut, Checbalk, Kitchegeequa, Sagosequa, Annoketoqua, and Tawcumegoqua, each, six hundred and forty acres of land, to be located at and near the grand traverse of the Flint river, in such manner as the President of the United States may direct.
For the use of the children of Bokowtonden, six hundred and forty acres, on the Kawkawling river.

ARTICLE 4.
In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay to the Chippewa nation of Indians, annually, for ever, the sum of one thousand dollars in silver; and do also agree that all annuities due by any former treaty to the said tribe, shall be hereafter paid in silver.

ARTICLE 5.
The stipulation contained in the treaty of Greenville, relative to the right of the Indians to hunt upon the land ceded, while it continues the property of the United States, shall apply to this treaty; and the Indians shall, for the same term, enjoy the privilege of making sugar upon the same land, committing no unnecessary waste upon the trees.

ARTICLE 6.
The United States agree to pay to the Indians the value of any improvements which they may be obliged to abandon, in consequence of the lines established by this treaty, and which improvements add real value to the land.

ARTICLE 7.
The United States reserve to the proper authority the right to make roads through any part of the land reserved by this treaty.

ARTICLE 8.
The United States engage to provide and support a blacksmith for the Indians, at Saginaw, so long as the President of the United States may think proper, and to furnish the Chippewa Indians with such farming utensils and cattle, and to employ such persons to aid them in their agriculture, as the President may deem expedient.

ARTICLE 9.
This treaty shall take effect, and be obligatory on the contracting parties, so soon as the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.

In testimony whereof, the said Lewis Cass, commissioner as aforesaid, and the chiefs and warriors of the Chippewa nation of Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at Saginaw, in the territory of Michigan, this twenty-fourth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and nineteen.

Lewis Cass, Pakenosega, his x mark, Kekenutchega, his x mark, Chimokemow, his x mark, Kekenutchegun, his x mark, Pashkobwis, his x mark, Muskobenense, his x mark, Waubonoosa, his x mark, Wausaquanai, his x mark, Minequet, his x mark, Otauson, his x mark, Tussegua, his x mark, Mixabee, his x mark, Kitchewawashen, his x mark, Neebeenaquin, his x mark, Anueemaycounbeeme, his x mark, Onewequa, his x mark, Nayokeeman, his x mark, Peshquescum, his x mark, Muckcumcinau, his x mark, Kitcheenoting, his x mark, Waubeekeenew, his x mark, Pashkeekou, his x mark, Mayto, his x mark, Sheemaugua, his x mark, Kauguest, his x mark, Kitsheematush, his x mark, Aneuwayba, his x mark, Walkcaykeejugo, his x mark, Autowaynabee, his x mark, Nawgonissee, his x mark, Owenisham, his x mark, Wauweeyatam, his x mark, Mooksonga, his x mark, Noukonwabe, his x mark, Shingwalk, his x mark, Shingwalk, jun. his x mark, Wawaubequak, his x mark, Meewayson, his x mark, Wepecumgegut, his x mark, Markkenwuwbe, his x mark, Fonegawne, his x mark, Nemetetowwa, his x mark, Kishkaukou, his x mark, Peenaysee, his x mark, Ogemaunkeketo, his x mark, Reaume, his x mark, Nowkeshuc, his x mark, Mixmunitou, his x mark, Wassau, his x mark, Keneobe, his x mark, Moksauba, his x mark, Mutchwetau, his x mark, Nuwagon, his x mark, Okumanpinase, his x mark, Meckseonne, his x mark, Paupemiskobe, his x mark, Kogkakeshik, his x mark, Wauwassack, his x mark, Misheneanonquet, his x mark, Okemans, his x mark, Nimeke, his x mark, Maneleugobwawaa, his x mark, Puckwash, his x mark, Waseneso, his x mark, Montons, his x mark, Kennewobe, his x mark, Shawshauwenaubais, his x mark, Okooyousinse, his x mark, Ondottowaugane, his x mark, Amickoneena, his x mark, Kitcheonundeeyo, his x mark, Saugassauway, his x mark, Okeemanpeenaysee, his x mark, Minggeeseetay, his x mark, Waubishcan, his x mark, Peaypaymanshee, his x mark, Ocanauck, his x mark, Ogeebouinse, his x mark, Paymeenoting, his x mark, Naynooautienishkoan, his x mark, Kaujagonaygee, his x mark, Mayneeseno, his x mark, Kakagouryan, his x mark, Kitchmokooman, his x mark, Singgok, his x mark, Maytwayaushing, his x mark, Saguhosh, his x mark, Saybo, his x mark, Obwole, his x mark, Aguagonabe, his x mark, Sigonak, his x mark, Kokoosh, his x mark, Pemaw, his x mark, Kawotoktame, his x mark, Sabo, his x mark, Kewageone, his x mark, Metewa, his x mark, Kawgeshequm, his x mark, Keyacum, his x mark, Atowagesek, his x mark, Mawmawkens, his x mark, Mamawsecuta, his x mark, Penaysewaykesek, his x mark, Kewaytinam, his x mark, Sepewan, his x mark, Shashebak, his x mark, Shaconk, his x mark, Mesnakrea, his x mark, Paymusawtom, his x mark, Endus, his x mark, Aushetayawnekusa, his x mark, Wawapenishik, his x mark, Omikou, his x mark, Leroy, his x mark.

Witnesses at signing:

John L. Leib, secretary, D. G. Whitney, assistant secretary, C. L. Cass, captain Third Infantry, R. A. Forsyth, jun. acting commissioner, Chester Root, captain U. S. Artillery, John Peacock, lieutenant Third U. S. Infantry, G. Godfroy, sub agent, W. Knaggs, sub agent. William Tucky, Lewis Beufort, John Hurson,

Sworn interpreters.

James V. S. Riley, B. Campau, John Hill, army contractor, J. Whipple, Henry I. Hunt, William Keith, A. E. Lacock, M. S. K., Richard Smyth, Louis Dequindre, B. Head, John Smyth, Conrad Ten Eyck.

Courtesy of OK State

"It does not seem to have occurred to any of those Christian nations, that the people inhabiting the
territory for unnumbered generations, should be consulted, or that they had any rights, which the powers issuing
those commissions were bound to respect." -William Lewis Weber (1937)
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979678 by condo
Sep 24, 2019 6:20am
Thread
Payments and Reimbursements
$1,000 was to be paid "annually, for ever," to "the Chippewa nation of Indians" in silver.
Compensation was to be paid for any improvements made on the land which had to be abandoned in light of the new boundaries.

Party Rights to Land
In accordance with the Greenville Treaty of 1795, some rights were retained by the tribes which signed the treaty. Namely, the right to hunt and the right to "enjoy the privilege of making sugar... committing no unnecessary waste upon the trees."
The United States reserved "the right make roads through any part of the land reserved by this treaty"

Hi condo,
Do you know if these stipulations are still upheld?
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979680 by Grrly Girl
Sep 24, 2019 7:14am
Thread
I don't know, however, I will be meeting with the Cultural Resource Management Curator later tonight. I will ask him.
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979680 by Grrly Girl
Sep 24, 2019 6:03pm
Thread
<quote> Payments and Reimbursements
$1,000 was to be paid "annually, for ever," to "the Chippewa nation of Indians" in silver.
Compensation was to be paid for any improvements made on the land which had to be abandoned in light of the new boundaries. </quote>

This is no longer being carried out.

<quote> Party Rights to Land
In accordance with the Greenville Treaty of 1795, some rights were retained by the tribes which signed the treaty. Namely, the right to hunt and the right to "enjoy the privilege of making sugar... committing no unnecessary waste upon the trees."
The United States reserved "the right make roads through any part of the land reserved by this treaty"</quote>

This is being carried out still

Condo
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979700 by condo
Sep 24, 2019 6:05pm
Thread
Ok, not sure what I did wrong that my quote is not showing up like a quote. It still has the words that should have turned into the quote.
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #979701 by condo
Oct 3, 2019 7:59am
Thread
Ok, not sure what I did wrong that my quote is not showing up like a quote.

Your settings are to use wiki quotes. You used HTML quotes.

-- Ryan
Re: 200th anniversary of the signing of the Saginaw Treaty
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #980013 by Green Tortuga
Oct 3, 2019 9:50pm
Thread
Thanks
The US Navy's Finest Hour, have you heard of it?
Board: History is Alive
Jan 1, 2020 11:14am
Thread
Ernest E Evans and the Battle of Samar

Ernest E Evans commanded the destroyer, USS Johnston from when it was commissioned in October 1943 until its demise on October 25, 1944. During the commission ceremony, Evans told his newly assembled crew, "This is a fighting ship, I intend to go in harms way, and anyone who doesn't want to go along had better get off right now." He closed by saying, " Now that I have a fighting ship, I will never retreat from an enemy force." No one accepted his offer to leave.

On October 25, 1944 at dawn, a Japanese fleet under Admiral Kurita was streaming through San Bernardino Straights just north of the Philippine Island of Samar. Kurita had 4 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 11 destroyers. Their objective was to crush MacArthur's (I shall return) invasion force. As Kurita's battle fleet came out of the straight they should have been greeted by Admiral Halsey's Third Fleet, the most power armada ever assembled. Contrary to the joint Army-Navy operational plan, Halsey decided that guarding MacArthur's north flank was not necessary. So when a decoy Japanese fleet passed near his Third Fleet and steamed away to the north, Halsey took all of his awesome firepower and, dare I say, deserted his post guarding the Army's rear.

After Halsey left for points north, next in the line of defense was Task Force Three, a sub-subgroup of the Seventh Fleet, which was guarding MacArthur’s south flank. Taffy Three, as it was known, was under the command of Rear Admiral Clifton "Ziggy" Sprague. With her 6 small (and slow) aircraft carriers, it was there to provide air support for the army's landing force. Taffy Three also had 3 destroyers and 4 destroyer escorts to protect the carriers from enemy submarines, dive bombers or any daring raid by a destroyer.

World War 2 Destroyers were relatively small war ships, displacing about 2000 tons. Their main fire power against ships were ten 2000 pound torpedoes and five 5-inch guns that fired 54 pound projectiles (aka shells) up to seven miles. On the other hand, the Japanese's largest battleships displaced over 74,000 tons and could shoot a shell the weight of a Honda Accord, 20 miles. A US destroyer's hull was 3/4 inch thick, miniscule when compared to the big Japanese battleship's hulls of 14 to 16 inches.

On paper, once the Japanese fleet catches Ziggy Sprague's Taffy 3, it should be annihilated in less than 30 minutes. Frankly the Japanese didn't need to catch the Americans, Kurita's 12 largest ships all had firing ranges of nearly triple any of the US ships. In addition, the Japanese torpedo-laden destroys were 25 mph faster than Sprague's aircraft carriers.

However, paper comparisons can't account for men like Ernest Evans who commanded one of Taffy Three's destroyers. Probably owing to his Cherokee and Creek heritage, Evans appreciated the hidden nature of things and the power of the unseen over the tangible. The fighting nature of his forebears animated him. His natural persona inspired those around him and his crew greatly respected him.

Surprised by the overwhelming Japanese force and before receiving orders, Evans chose to attack rather than flee. He understood the stakes. If the Japanese got through to General MacArthur’s troop transports and supply ships, the landing at Leyte would become a disaster. Despite having only two hours of fuel, there was no question as to what decision Evans would make: the Johnston would attack. “All hands to general quarters. Prepare to attack major portion of the Japanese fleet. All engines ahead flank. Commence making smoke and stand by for a torpedo attack. Left full Ruder."

Evans also knew his duty was to protect the 6 flattops and the 165 planes of Taffy Three. If those planes were going to get air born they would need time, every minute counted. The Johnston peeled out of formation and charged the 23-ship Japanese Battle Fleet. Almost immediately the Johnston started drawing fire, fire the Japanese would rather be aimed at the carriers. Evans zig-zagged thru the enormous shell splashes, but before his five 5-inch guns could be fired, the Johnston would have to close the range by 6 miles. For five more long minutes, Evans dodged shells that rained down all around them. FINALLY the Johnston was in range to return the fire. One big advantage of the American's 5-inch guns, was their accuracy. All five guns could be aimed simultaneously by one officer and more importantly the fire control system was "computer-aided", so that aim was adjusted every few seconds to account for the ship's movements and even the earth's rotation.

Range to the closest heavy cruiser, the Kumano, was quickly established and the 5-inch guns started pounding its tower and deck. These shells couldn't do damage to the cruiser's hull but the tower, as well as any exposed men or equipment were vulnerable. The enemy cruiser started taking evasive action to avoid the little ship's fire. In the several minutes it took to get to torpedo range, the Johnston scored at least 40 hits on the Kumano.

Meanwhile, Admiral Sprague ordered the remaining destroyers and destroyer escorts to make torpedo attacks. As the Johnston approached torpedo range, three more little US war ships lined up to attack Goliath and run the gauntlet to a torpedo launching position.

At last the Johnston reached torpedo range and fired all ten torpedoes. After firing, she turned hard to port and entered the smoke screen she had made during the attack. Miraculously, no incoming shells had hit the Johnston. Some four minutes later, the deep reverberations of torpedo hits were heard by the Johnston's crew. At least two and possibly 3 of the torpedoes had hit their mark. The Kumano's bow had been ripped clean away and she was forced to fall out of line. Other ships made evasive maneuvers to avoid stray torpedoes. Evans had successfully delayed and slowed the enemy juggernaut, already many of the American planes had launched and were attacking.

And then the Johnston's luck ran out. She took a salvo of two hits from a battleship, probably 16-inch, 1500 pound shells, and soon after by a third shell. She sat dead in the water for what must have seemed like an eternity. The surviving crew scrambled to stabilize the ship. Amidst the damage, 2 of the 3 boilers that fed the engine turbines were destroyed and only one engine was operational. Evans and his crew managed to get her back underway, making a modest 17 knots. When three sister ships steamed past making their torpedo attack, even though the Johnston could not keep up, Evans had his ship fall into line following the attacking ships. After the 3 initial hits on the Johnston surprisingly all five 5-inch guns were still operational. On its second attack, it inflicted significant damage to 3 heavy cruisers, again drawing fire way from the Taffy flattops.

During the next two hours, all four American ships of this mini-attack force would become victims of the enemy's big guns. During their run, they launched all 33 of their torpedoes with at least 9 hits. These four ships fired their 5-inch guns until they were either knocked out of action or they ran out of ammunition. Their job had been to protect the six carriers of Taffy Three and they had done it better than anyone thought possible. The carriers were given time to launch nearly every plane. Kurita's fleet was only able to sink one of the carriers. The Taffy Three planes attacked the enemy fleet like angry hornets. Three hours after the first salvos fired by the Japanese battleships, Admiral Kurita broke off his attack.

One by one, the four US ships were abandoned, with about half of their crew's numbers making it into the water. Ernest E. Evans was not among them. He was last seen aboard the Johnston checking to make sure everyone was off.

In its long history, the United States Navy's finest hour was performed the 13 little ships of Taffy Three. Admiral Bull Halsey never admitted fault for his rash actions on that fateful day.

If you want to learn more about this battle, the book, The Last Stand of the Tin Can Sailors tells the amazing story in detail. Be forewarned, it's not for the faint at heart... there's no place to hide on a tin can.

Submitted for your consideration,
Old Blue
Re: The US Navy's Finest Hour, have you heard of it?
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #982150 by DoubleSaj and Old Blue
Jan 1, 2020 9:39pm
Thread
All five guns could be aimed simultaneously by one officer and more importantly the fire control system was "computer-aided", so that aim was adjusted every few seconds to account for the ship's movements and even the earth's rotation.

In that era computers were either people (yes, the first "computers" were people who computed), mechanical or tube electronics (which are fragile). Do you have any more information on these computers?
Re: The US Navy's Finest Hour, have you heard of it?
Board: History is Alive
Reply to: #982165 by Oberon_Kenobi
Jan 2, 2020 9:42am
Thread
Do you have any more information on these computers?

The following is from the Last Stand of the Tin Can Sailors:

Among the great innovations of the 1940s-era Navy were the radar fire-control systems with which all new surface combatant ships were equipped. …the guns of the Fletcher-class destroyer were controlled centrally by its gunnery officer. Seated in an enclosed gun director platform high above the bridge he operated a two handled steering mechanisms that controlled the aiming of the five main gun mounts. When ordered, the gun captains relinquished control of their mounts to the gunnery officer. At that point the two men beside the officer in the gun director, the pointer and the trainee took over. They kept whatever they were shooting at fixed in the crosshairs of their telescopes, one for gauging bearing, the other gauging distance.

In heavy seas, the sight of the destroyer's five director-controlled guns swayed in unison to stay on target as the ship pitched, yawed and rolled could be unsettling. This synchro-gyroscopic wizardry relegated the men manning the guns to auxiliary backups whose duties went beyond simply loading only if the system broke down. As long as range and target data kept feeding the fire-control computer, they had no aiming to do and little discretion to exercise. Gun crews had only to pull rounds off the hydraulic shell hoist and lay them in front of the powder canisters in the sliding breached tray. Their most immediate challenge was to keep their fingers and hands from getting crushed between the heavy shells and the breach mechanism.

Old Blue
Asimov's 100th Birthday
Board: History is Alive
Jan 2, 2020 9:56am
A Celebration of Isaac Asimov

I would have made a carve to celebrate this, but I don't have enough time today to make an image to carve, carve it, make a log book and find a place to hide it. Maybe someone else is faster at this.

I have done other anniversary boxes though.